Tìm Hiểu Về Giao Thức SMTP Trong Ứng Dụng Email

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Contents

Bạn đã từng bao giờ thắc mắc làm thế nào mà email được gửi đến đúng đối tượng ? Hãy đọc bài viết để làm sáng tỏ vấn đề này :

SMTP là một giao thức được dùng để gửi và nhận email trên máy tính hoặc các thiết bị như là computer hoặc mobiphone. SMTP là viết tắt của cụm từ Simple Mail Transfer Protocol giúp cho phép truyền tải dữ liệu từ một mail server sang một mail server khác, từ đó cho phép trao đổi email với nhau.

SMTP được phát triển lần đầu tiên vào năm 1980 bởi tổ chức Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). SMTP là một phần của bộ giao thức TCP/ IP ở lớp application.

Sử dụng phương thức “ lưu trữ và chuyển tiếp “, chuyển liên tục Email từ một Mail Transfer Agent ( máy tính đại diện chuyển mail ) sang một Mail Transfer Agent. Cứ như thế, Email được đi qua hàng chuỗi các máy server, trước khi đến được đích cuối cùng.

smtp server Tìm Hiểu Về Giao Thức SMTP Trong Ứng Dụng Email

Khi đã đến được server đích, mail sẽ được thu thập và gửi đến đúng địa chỉ thông qua giao thức Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) hoặc Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP). Cả 2 giao thức này đều có những ưu nhược điểm khác nhau, nhưng theo nguyên tắc chung, IMAP nên được sử dụng cho các ứng dụng doanh nghiệp, khi email sẽ được lưu trữ trên server thay vì máy local.

Cho dù bạn chọn giao thức nào, thì cũng cần chỉ định trên máy chủ, để thiết bị của bạn có thể nhận được mail dễ dàng. SMTP được tích hợp vào các ứng dụng Email và bao gồm 4 phần quan trọng : một người dùng nội bộ gọi là mail user agent (MUA); một server có chức năng làm đại lý gửi thư được gọi là mail submission agent (MSA); một đại lý chuyển thư mail transfer agent (MTA); một đại lý gửi thư mail delivery agent (MDA).

SMTP server :

Một SMTP server đơn giản chỉ là một máy tính chạy dịch vụ SMTP. Một thư điện tử khi người dùng bấm nút gửi đi, sẽ bắt đầu được gửi đến máy này để bắt đầu cuộc hành trình di chuyển của mình.

6 bước vận chuyển Email :

Một email được gửi từ người gửi đến người nhận thông qua 6 bước này :

  1. Email sẽ được gửi từ một MUA đến một mail server MSA.
  2. Email được chuyển tiếp từ server MSA bằng port 25 ( MTA và MSA thường được đặt trên cùng một SMTP server ).
  3. MTA confirm bản ghi MX record của domain đối tượng, và chuyển tiếp thư điện tử này đến một MTA khác ( thao tác này có thể sẽ được lặp lại nhiều lần ).
  4. Email được chuyển đến MDA, tại đây Email sẽ được lưu lại theo định dạng chính xác mà MUA có thể nhận được.
  5. MUA nhận được yêu cầu tin nhắn từ MDA thông qua POP3 hoặc IMAP.
  6. Cuối cùng, email được chuyển đến hộp inbox của MUA.

Sử dụng MIME để gửi tệp đính kèm :

SMTP là một protocol đáng tin cậy, nhưng nó có hạn chế là chỉ gửi được văn bản. Điều đó gây khá nhiều trở ngại khi người dùng muốn gửi file đính kèm trong Email, vì thế MIME được xem là giải pháp cứu cánh khi người dùng muốn đính kèm file cùng email.

MIME là viết tắt của Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. Đây là một extension cho SMTP giúp người dùng có thể gửi các loại file khác nhau trên internet, VD như : âm thanh, video, hình ảnh…

SMTP Authentication :

Một extension mở rộng khác của SMTP đó là SMTP Authentication. Nó giúp các ứng dụng Email xác thực khi kết nối đến máy chủ SMTP bằng tên người dùng và mật khẩu. Nó giúp ngăn chặn các user không xác thực gửi email thông qua SMTP server.

giao thức smtp và pop3 Tìm Hiểu Về Giao Thức SMTP Trong Ứng Dụng Email

Xem thêm : Cách Bấm Cáp Mạng Dùng Trong Hệ Thống Nội Bộ

  • giao thức smtp là gì
  • giao thức smtp và pop3
  • giao thức mail smtp
  • tìm hiểu giao thức smtp
  • smtp port 25
  • mime extension
  • mime smtp
  • smtp authentication

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